Jeremiah the prophet against Babylon
and the land of the Chaldeans, God
"Babylon is taken, Bel is shamed. Merodach is broken in pieces"
The word "Bel" and "Baal" is a generic name for "Lord," and here it is applied to Merodach, as in Lord Merodach. He was "the state-god of Babylon" or the ranking territorial spirit over that nation.
In chapter 3 (of his book Warfare Prayer), I mentioned the enlightening passage in Daniel 10 where specifically the "prince of Persia" and the "prince of Greece" are named. (#37 Biblical Examples - Daniel )
It will not be necessary here to recount the details, but simply to reiterate the concept of territoriality. Old Testament scholars Keil and Delitzsch conclude that the "prince of Persia" is indeed the demon of the Persian kingdom.
They refer to him as..
"the supernatural spiritual power standing behind the
national gods, which we may properly call the guardian
spirit of the kingdom."
In summary, it does seem that, without providing a great amount
of detail, much of the old Testament is based on the assumption that certain supernatural spiritual beings have dominion over geo-political spheres.
Not only that, but it is important to note that these concepts carried through the intertestamental time to the Jewish people of New Testament times.
Oscar Cullmann says,
"This abundantly attested late Jewish belief that all peoples
are ruled through angels is present particularly in The
Book of Daniel, in The Wisdom of Jesus, Son of Sirach,
and in the Book of Enoch, and it can be shown to be
present also in the Talmud and Midrash...The existing
earthly political power belongs in the realm of such
(Google image and emphasis added)